Some cases of male factor infertility are so profound and intractable as to preclude using male partner’s sperm. In such cases, there is still hope by using donor sperm (DS). The use of donor sperm is both safe and effective. In addition to meeting medical and matching requirements all DS should (with some exceptions) be cryopreserved (frozen) and quarantined for about 6 months, whereupon the sperm donor should be re-tested for viral sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV and hepatitis C which can lie dormant and be undetectable for this period of time. Thereupon the sperm can be dispensed for use. The freezing process weakens DS. Thus thawed DS should not be used for intra-vaginal insemination. Rather its use should be confined to dispensation by IUI or ICSI.
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